In 1974 Prime Minister Bhutto enacted an amendment to the constitution declaring Ahmadis to be non-Muslims. In the 1980s, measures brought in by Zia-ul-Haq to Islamicise Pakistan’s civil and criminal law affected all religious minorities but particularly Ahmadis.

Zia-ul-Haq’s 1984 Ordinance XX introduced explicit references to Ahmadis in sections 298b and 298c of the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC). Section 298b significantly restricts Ahmadi freedom of religion and expression requiring ‘a term which may extend to three years’ and a fine for any Ahmadi.


The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is facing persecution in Indonesia at the hands of extremists spurred on by anti-Ahmadi edicts issued by the Indonesian Council of Ulemas (MUI) and the 2008 Joint Ministerial Decree.

A fatwa issued by the MUI in 1980 (and reissued in 2005) declared that Ahmadis to be “non-Islamic group, deviant and misled” and described the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as apostates and heretics, and called for them to be banned.